Indiana's 2018 legislative session

Indiana has thousands of foster kids, but knows little about their education. This bill could change that

PHOTO: Meghan Mangrum

Foster children in Indiana – and across the country – likely won’t graduate from high school, and very few of them will go on to college. But foster children are rarely included in state-level discussions about how Indiana is educating its kids.

The Indiana Department of Education has very little data on how the 30,000 children in foster care perform in school, a group close to the size of the state’s largest school district. Indiana saw the second steepest climb in the nation of foster children between 2012 and 2016, with an increase of 60 percent.

To identify the issues that are holding foster students back, lawmakers and advocates are proposing a bill that that would require the education department and the Department of Child Services to share data on foster students in Indiana. So far, House Bill 1314 has seen broad bipartisan support.

“Youth in foster care really have no one speaking for them,” said Brent Kent, CEO of Indiana Connected By 25, a foster child advocacy group. “The state is their parent … we will see for the first time, foster youth side-by-side with other peer groups and how they are performing.”

The bill, authored by Granger Republican Rep. Dale DeVon, would set up data sharing between the state’s education and child services departments. It would also require that the Indiana State Board of Education release an annual report about foster youth education.

About half the foster children in the country will graduate from high school by age 19, and only about 3 percent go on to complete college, according to a report from the Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative. In Indiana, the numbers of children in foster care have swelled in part because of the opioid crisis.

Kent said collecting data is a huge leap forward for Indiana. It doesn’t sound innovative, but few states do it.  Indiana already reports student data separated by race, ethnicity, income level, gender and age, among other factors — if the bill becomes law, foster care status would be included.

“No one ever maliciously leaves out foster youth,” Kent said. “We just never thoughtfully include them.”

The foster care data wouldn’t factor into state letter grades as some other subgroup data does. The department of education testified in favor of the bill.

Demetrees Hutchins, a researcher from Indiana University and a former foster child, said it’s “deplorable” how few foster children make it to college. She said this bill can help state agencies coordinate their work so these students aren’t being ignored.

“Implementing this bill makes those in the child welfare system’s job that much easier. It makes those in the education world’s job that much easier,” Hutchins said. “Because we would know where the problems are … and use that data to inform policy- and decision-making.”

Kent said he’s realistic — he doesn’t think this bill will solve every problem foster children face. But it’s a start. The bill passed the House unanimously and is up for consideration in the Senate in the coming weeks.

“Our goal was just to bring some attention to it,” Kent said. “The work is not done closing the achievement gap for subgroups, but … until we know these things, we can’t address them.”


Indiana's 2018 legislative session

Indiana’s plan to measure high schools with a college prep test is on hold for two years

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

Thanks to last-minute legislative wrangling, it’s unclear what test Indiana high schoolers will take for the next two years to measure what they have learned in school.

Lawmakers were expected to approve a House bill proposing Indiana use a college entrance exam starting in 2019 as yearly testing for high schoolers, at the same time state works to replace its overall testing system, ISTEP. But the start date for using the SAT or ACT was pushed back from 2019 to 2021, meaning it’s unclear how high schoolers will be judged for the next two years.

This is the latest upheaval in testing as the state works to replace ISTEP in favor of the new ILEARN testing system, a response to years of technical glitches and scoring problems. While a company has already proposed drafting exams for measuring the performance of Indiana students, officials now need to come up with a solution for the high school situation. ILEARN exams for grades 3-8 are still set to begin in 2019.

“Our next steps are to work with (the state board) to help inform them as they decide the plan for the next several years,” said Adam Baker, spokesman for the Indiana Department of Education. “We take concerns seriously and we will continue doing all we can to support schools to manage the transition well.”

The delay in switching from the 10th grade ISTEP to college entrance exams for measuring high school students was proposed Wednesday night as lawmakers wrapped up the 2018 legislative session. Rep. Bob Behning, the bill’s author, said the change came out of a desire to align the testing plan with recommendations on high school tests from a state committee charged with rewriting Indiana’s graduation requirements.

It’s just the latest road bump since the legislature voted last year to scrap ISTEP and replace it with ILEARN, a plan that originally included a computer-adaptive test for grades 3-8 and end-of-course exams for high-schoolers in English, algebra and biology. Indiana is required by the federal government to test students each year in English and math, and periodically, in science.

The Indiana Department of Education started carrying out the plan to move to ILEARN over the summer and eventually selected the American Institutes for Research to write the test, a company that helped create the Common-Core affiliated Smarter balanced test. AIR’s proposal said they were prepared to create tests for elementary, middle and high school students.

Then, the “graduation pathways” committee, which includes Behning and Sen. Dennis Kruse, the Senate Education Committee chairman, upended the plan by suggesting the state instead use the SAT or ACT to test high schoolers. The committee said the change would result in a yearly test that has more value to students and is something they can use if they plan to attend college. Under their proposal, the change would have come during the 2021-22 school year.

When lawmakers began the 2018 session, they proposed House Bill 1426, which had a 2019 start. This bill passed out of both chambers and the timeline was unchanged until Wednesday.

In the meantime, the Indiana Department of Education and the Indiana State Board of Education must decide what test high schoolers will take in 2019 and 2020 and how the state as a whole will transition from an Indiana-specific 10th grade ISTEP exam to a college entrance exam.

It’s not clear what approach state education officials will take, but one option is to go forward with AIR’s plan to create high school end-of-course exams. The state will already need a U.S. Government exam, which lawmakers made an option for districts last year, and likely will need one for science because college entrance exams include little to no science content. It could make sense to move ahead with English and math as well, though it will ultimately be up to the state board.

Some educators and national education advocates have raised concerns about whether an exam like the SAT or ACT is appropriate for measuring schools, though 14 states already do.

Jeff Butts, superintendent of Wayne Township, told state board members last week that using the college entrance exams seemed to contradict the state’s focus on students who go straight into the workforce and don’t plan to attend college. And a report from Achieve, a national nonprofit that helps states work on academic standards and tests, cautioned states against using the exams for state accountability because they weren’t designed to measure how well students have mastered state standards.

“The danger in using admissions tests as accountability tests for high school is that many high school teachers will be driven to devote scarce course time to middle school topics, water down the high school content they are supposed to teach in mathematics, or too narrowly focus on a limited range of skills in (English),” the report stated.

House Bill 1426 would also combine Indiana’s four diplomas into a single diploma with four “designations” that mirror current diploma tracks. In addition, it would change rules for getting a graduation waiver and create an “alternate diploma” for students with severe special needs.The bill would also allow the Indiana State Board of Education to consider alternatives to Algebra 2 as a graduation requirement and eliminates the requirement that schools give the Accuplacer remediation test.

It next heads to Gov. Eric Holcomb’s desk to be signed into law.

Indiana's 2018 legislative session

A plan to expand state takeover in Gary and Muncie died, but 13 other education bills survived the 2018 session

PHOTO: Shaina Cavazos
House Speaker Brian Bosma talks with Democrats shortly before the session adjourned without passing several bills.

The Indiana legislature missed its best shot at passing a major education bill this session when lawmakers adjourned without taking a vote on legislation that would expand state takeover measures in two financially troubled Indiana school districts.

The clock literally ran out on the 2018 session early Thursday morning before either chamber held a final vote on the controversial proposal, House Bill 1315.

Democrats cheered the defeat of the measure at the end of a session they derided as a “disappointing dud,” and even Republicans acknowledged that the list of legislative priorities this year were “pretty slim.”

Democratic lawmakers from Gary and Muncie, two public school districts the state took over in an unprecedented move last year, vehemently opposed the bill, which would have stripped power from the Gary school board and handed control of Muncie over to Ball State University. Minority Leader Terry Goodin, from Austin, said he’s not confident the bill would have passed in its final form.

The takeover bill would also have put in place a new system to help the state identify schools that could be on the way toward significant financial problems.

“It’s unfortunate, but the republic will survive,” said House Speaker Brian Bosma. “If there was one bill the minority (party) really objected to, it was the Muncie/Gary school bill … We’ll have another year to think about it.”

It can be difficult during a non-budget year to make significant change because money is generally not available to fund new programs or increase existing ones. But even in the 2016 “short session,” bills passed to repeal the state ISTEP test and create innovation network schools that allow districts to take advantage of charter-like partnerships.

The biggest education issue lawmakers passed was a bill to make up an unexpected shortfall in school funding.

Several of the more pressing education bills that lawmakers approved this session were reactive — combining the state’s four high school diplomas into one, for example, in response to new federal education laws that would have ceased to count general diploma students as graduates. They also voted to change the state high school test to a college entrance exam in response to recommendations from the state “graduation pathways” committee that created new graduation requirements.

Other bills resulted in small steps forward on recurring issues that have come before lawmakers multiple times, such as a bill to require screening and services for students who might have dyslexia and another bill that, once a controversial provision that would let districts hire more unlicensed teachers was removed, adds in more categories of teachers who can receive stipends, a list that has been growing slowly for years.

Below is a summary of education bills that passed this session, which next head to Gov. Eric Holcomb, where he can decide whether to sign them into law. You can find the status of all the bills introduced this year here, and Chalkbeat’s 2018 legislative coverage here.

Graduation and workforce

Senate Bill 50 establishes the governor’s workforce cabinet, which would oversee job training efforts across the state. The cabinet would create a “career navigation and coaching system,” which all Indiana high schools would be required to participate in. State Superintendent Jennifer McCormick would be a cabinet member.

House Bill 1426 would combine Indiana’s four diplomas into a single diploma with four “designations” that mirror current diploma tracks. In addition, it would change rules for getting a graduation waiver and create an “alternate diploma” for students with severe special needs.The bill would also allow the Indiana State Board of Education to consider alternatives to Algebra 2 as a graduation requirement. It makes several changes to state tests, replacing the state high school exam with a national college-entrance exam and eliminating the requirement that schools give the Accuplacer remediation test. The final version of the bill also changes the timing of testing from earlier version. Students wouldn’t begin the new graduation pathways plan until 2021, so the same deadline was applied to switching to a college entrance exam for state accountability. Until then, state education officials will have to decide what annual test high schoolers take when students in grades 3-8 switch to the new ILEARN test next year.


House Bill 1001 would close the gap in school funding that resulted from miscalculations in the number of students attending public schools. The bills would let the state transfer up to $25 million this year and up to $75 million next year from a reserve fund to the state general fund, where it could then be distributed to districts. The bill also calls for a study of virtual education programs within school districts.


Senate Bill 172 would require public schools to offer computer science classes as an elective in high schools, as well as a part of the science curriculum for all K-12 students, by 2021. The bill also sets up a grant program to help pay for teacher training in computer science.

Senate Bill 297 would require schools to include “employability skills,” also known as “soft skills,” in their curriculums. The idea for the bill came from David Freitas, a member of the state board of education.

Senate Bill 65 would require school districts to let parents examine any instructional materials dealing with sex education. It would also require schools to send out consent forms for sex ed classes, where parents could then opt students out of the class. If they do not, the students would still receive instruction.

House Bill 1399 would require the state board to create elementary teacher licenses in math and science. It would also require the state education department to create an incentive program to reward teachers who earn the content area licenses.

Senate Bill 387 would allow districts to pay teachers different amounts and give special education and science teachers extra stipends in an effort to fill jobs. A previous measure that would let districts hire up to 10 percent of unlicensed teachers has been added and removed several times this year, and was killed for good in conference committee. The bill also makes changes to the state’s career specialist permit. Career specialists would have to pass an exam showing they understand how students learn and the practice of teaching, in addition to content exams. The bill also removes a provision from the current version of the permit that says a career specialist must have a bachelor’s degree in the area they wish to teach in.


House Bill 1420, among several other measures, would not let a student who has been expelled from a virtual charter school for non-attendance re-enroll in that same school during the same school year.

House Bill 1421 would ask the state education department to develop a school discipline model that reduces suspensions and expulsions, especially among students of color. It also requires the department to provide guidance and information to districts, beginning in 2019, that want to use that model. It encourages the legislative council to study positive student discipline and restorative justice and asks the education department to survey districts on those practices.

House Bill 1398 would allow a group of charter schools and districts to form a “coalition” to pursue innovative academic strategies. Coalition members could also waive certain state requirements, such as the requirement that students pass Algebra 2 to graduate.

Senate Bill 217 would require districts and charter schools to screen students for dyslexia and by 2019, to employ at least one reading specialist trained in dyslexia, among other provisions.

House Bill 1314 would set up data sharing between the state’s education and child services departments. It would also require that the Indiana State Board of Education release an annual report about foster and homeless youth education.