First Person

Ask an Expert: Spotting and handling signs of LSD use

Q. My son said there are rumors that a kid we know is getting high and using acid.  I am not friends with the parents though I know them.  I’m not sure if I should let them know when there is no proof. This kid is a sophomore in high school.

A. First, it is quite a compliment that your son feels comfortable sharing this type of information with you.  Congratulations on your open lines of communication!  It leads me to wonder what your son would like you to do with the information. I assume you will discuss your options with him.

sheets of blotter acid, also known as LSDAcid is one of the street names for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) –  also known as “blotter” and “dots.” LSD is a synthetic hallucinogen with no legitimate medical use. It is very potent. Only microgram amounts are required to produce overt hallucinations, according to the Drug Enforcement Agency.

According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 779,000 Americans age 12 and older had abused LSD at least once in the year prior to being surveyed. The most recent Monitoring the Future study, released in February, reported that 1.2 percent of eighth-graders, 1.9 percent of 10th-graders, and 2.6 percent of high school seniors had abused LSD at least once in the year prior to being surveyed. So, if the student you reference is using acid, it is of great concern.

It appears to me that you have a number of options. Here they are:

  • You could call the other child’s parents and report the rumors to them. On the positive side, they might believe you and thank you for caring about their child. I am sure you have already considered the possible negative consequences of reporting the rumors to them.  They might not believe you and/or your son might object to his identity being revealed.  Chances are when confronted by parents about possible drug use most students will deny the use.  This option might not lead to the student getting the help he/she needs.
  • Option two would be for either you or your son to contact a guidance counselor or administrator at the school and ask him/her to follow up on the rumor and protect yours and your son’s confidentiality.  Some schools even have a “referral box” where students can relay information to guidance personnel when concerned about a fellow student and protect the identity of the person reporting.
  • The third option is for you or your son to report the concern to SAFE2TELL. This is an anonymous tip line (with anonymity guaranteed by Colorado legislation) designed to help any student, parent or community member  anonymously report any threatening behavior that endangers a student, his friends, your family, or your community. SAFE2TELL will then contact the school so that the proper staff members can follow through on the tip.

In the case of possible criminal activity, SAFE2TELL will also contact local law enforcement along with the school. According to SAFE2TELL statistics, there have been nearly 10,000 information and educational calls, with 3,433 Safe2Tell reports resulting in investigation, early intervention and prevention as of January. Of those 3,433 reports, calls have come from 163 cities and 59 counties across Colorado.

For more information, call SAFE2ELL at 877-542-7233 (877-542-SAFE).

If the rumors are true, I think it is admirable that you and your son want to be sure this student receives the help he/she needs. I wish you well.

First Person

I’ve spent years studying the link between SHSAT scores and student success. The test doesn’t tell you as much as you might think.

PHOTO: Photo by Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images

Proponents of New York City’s specialized high school exam, the test the mayor wants to scrap in favor of a new admissions system, defend it as meritocratic. Opponents contend that when used without consideration of school grades or other factors, it’s an inappropriate metric.

One thing that’s been clear for decades about the exam, now used to admit students to eight top high schools, is that it matters a great deal.

Students admitted may not only receive a superior education, but also access to elite colleges and eventually to better employment. That system has also led to an under-representation of Hispanic students, black students, and girls.

As a doctoral student at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2015, and in the years after I received my Ph.D., I have tried to understand how meritocratic the process really is.

First, that requires defining merit. Only New York City defines it as the score on a single test — other cities’ selective high schools use multiple measures, as do top colleges. There are certainly other potential criteria, such as artistic achievement or citizenship.

However, when merit is defined as achievement in school, the question of whether the test is meritocratic is an empirical question that can be answered with data.

To do that, I used SHSAT scores for nearly 28,000 students and school grades for all public school students in the city. (To be clear, the city changed the SHSAT itself somewhat last year; my analysis used scores on the earlier version.)

My analysis makes clear that the SHSAT does measure an ability that contributes to some extent to success in high school. Specifically, a SHSAT score predicts 20 percent of the variability in freshman grade-point average among all public school students who took the exam. Students with extremely high SHSAT scores (greater than 650) generally also had high grades when they reached a specialized school.

However, for the vast majority of students who were admitted with lower SHSAT scores, from 486 to 600, freshman grade point averages ranged widely — from around 50 to 100. That indicates that the SHSAT was a very imprecise predictor of future success for students who scored near the cutoffs.

Course grades earned in the seventh grade, in contrast, predicted 44 percent of the variability in freshman year grades, making it a far better admissions criterion than SHSAT score, at least for students near the score cutoffs.

It’s not surprising that a standardized test does not predict as well as past school performance. The SHSAT represents a two and a half hour sample of a limited range of skills and knowledge. In contrast, middle-school grades reflect a full year of student performance across the full range of academic subjects.

Furthermore, an exam which relies almost exclusively on one method of assessment, multiple choice questions, may fail to measure abilities that are revealed by the variety of assessment methods that go into course grades. Additionally, middle school grades may capture something important that the SHSAT fails to capture: long-term motivation.

Based on his current plan, Mayor de Blasio seems to be pointed in the right direction. His focus on middle school grades and the Discovery Program, which admits students with scores below the cutoff, is well supported by the data.

In the cohort I looked at, five of the eight schools admitted some students with scores below the cutoff. The sample sizes were too small at four of them to make meaningful comparisons with regularly admitted students. But at Brooklyn Technical High School, the performance of the 35 Discovery Program students was equal to that of other students. Freshman year grade point averages for the two groups were essentially identical: 86.6 versus 86.7.

My research leads me to believe that it might be reasonable to admit a certain percentage of the students with extremely high SHSAT scores — over 600, where the exam is a good predictor —and admit the remainder using a combined index of seventh grade GPA and SHSAT scores.

When I used that formula to simulate admissions, diversity increased, somewhat. An additional 40 black students, 209 Hispanic students, and 205 white students would have been admitted, as well as an additional 716 girls. It’s worth pointing out that in my simulation, Asian students would still constitute the largest segment of students (49 percent) and would be admitted in numbers far exceeding their proportion of applicants.

Because middle school grades are better than test scores at predicting high school achievement, their use in the admissions process should not in any way dilute the quality of the admitted class, and could not be seen as discriminating against Asian students.

The success of the Discovery students should allay some of the concerns about the ability of students with SHSAT scores below the cutoffs. There is no guarantee that similar results would be achieved in an expanded Discovery Program. But this finding certainly warrants larger-scale trials.

With consideration of additional criteria, it may be possible to select a group of students who will be more representative of the community the school system serves — and the pool of students who apply — without sacrificing the quality for which New York City’s specialized high schools are so justifiably famous.

Jon Taylor is a research analyst at Hunter College analyzing student success and retention. 

First Person

With roots in Cuba and Spain, Newark student came to America to ‘shine bright’

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Layla Gonzalez

This is my story of how we came to America and why.

I am from Mallorca, Spain. I am also from Cuba, because of my dad. My dad is from Cuba and my grandmother, grandfather, uncle, aunt, and so on. That is what makes our family special — we are different.

We came to America when my sister and I were little girls. My sister was three and I was one.

The first reason why we came here to America was for a better life. My parents wanted to raise us in a better place. We also came for better jobs and better pay so we can keep this family together.

We also came here to have more opportunities — they do call this country the “Land Of Opportunities.” We came to make our dreams come true.

In addition, my family and I came to America for adventure. We came to discover new things, to be ourselves, and to be free.

Moreover, we also came here to learn new things like English. When we came here we didn’t know any English at all. It was really hard to learn a language that we didn’t know, but we learned.

Thank God that my sister and I learned quickly so we can go to school. I had a lot of fun learning and throughout the years we do learn something new each day. My sister and I got smarter and smarter and we made our family proud.

When my sister Amira and I first walked into Hawkins Street School I had the feeling that we were going to be well taught.

We have always been taught by the best even when we don’t realize. Like in the times when we think we are in trouble because our parents are mad. Well we are not in trouble, they are just trying to teach us something so that we don’t make the same mistake.

And that is why we are here to learn something new each day.

Sometimes I feel like I belong here and that I will be alright. Because this is the land where you can feel free to trust your first instinct and to be who you want to be and smile bright and look up and say, “Thank you.”

As you can see, this is why we came to America and why we can shine bright.

Layla Gonzalez is a fourth-grader at Hawkins Street School. This essay is adapted from “The Hispanic American Dreams of Hawkins Street School,” a self-published book by the school’s students and staff that was compiled by teacher Ana Couto.